Evolving Models of Behavioral Health Integration


The new report provides an updated scan of the literature over a five-year period (2010 to 2015), identifying changes and gaps in the evidence since publication of the 2010 report. It also identifies resources to assist policymakers and health care planners in selecting, implementing, and sustaining behavioral health integration (BHI) models appropriate for their populations and settings. Consistent with our mission of improving the health of populations by connecting leaders and decision makers with the best evidence and experience, this report was reviewed by policymakers with an eye toward making it useful for them. We believe it will aid and encourage leaders as they work to develop policies that improve the care and health of people with mental illness. As the largest payer of mental health services in the United States (US), state Medicaid agencies are key players, often influencing how mental health care is delivered. Policymakers and health care planners benefit from information that helps them understand and implement effective interventions. For decades, policymakers and providers have seen worse health outcomes for people with behavioral health disorders compared to those without them. Some of the reasons for this include the lack of understanding of the relationship between mental and physical disorders and siloed behavioral and physical health care systems. For some people, the symptoms of their mental disorders, such as depression or anxiety, make it a real challenge to engage in the health care system. For others, stigma associated with severe mental illness or lack of behavioral health staff in primary care offices makes it difficult to find a primary care home where they feel they can fit in. And, for some people with severe mental illness or substance use disorders, their lives may be too chaotic or disorganized to access the care they need. 


  • Acknowledgements
  • Message from the President
  • Background
  • Aim of the Report
  • Methods
  • Findings
  • Summary and Implications
  • Appendix A. Eight Models of Behavioral Health Integration
  • Appendix B. Definition of Terms Used in Behavioral Health Integration
  • Appendix C. Systematic and Controlled Trials of Behavioral Health Integration Interventions
  • Supplement A. Report Methods
  • Supplement B. Search Strategy
  • Notes
  • The Author
Contact Person/Organization: 

Martha Gerrity, Milbank Memorial Fund

Type of Tool:

Publication Date: 

Behavioral Healthcare Integration

Primary Care Behavioral Health Integration

Behavioural Health Integration: Challenges and Opportunities