The Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change


The transtheoretical model posits that health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Ten processes of change have been identified for producing progress along with decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptations. Basic research has generated a rule of thumb for at-risk populations: 40% in precontemplation, 40% in contemplation, and 20% in preparation. Across 12 health behaviors, consistent patterns have been found between the pros and cons of changing and the stages of change. 


  • Abstract
  • Core Constructs
    • Stages of Change
    • Processes of Change
    • Decisional Balance
    • Temptation
    • Critical Assumptions
  • Basic Research Support
    • Stage Distribution
    • Pros and Cons Structure Across 12 Behaviors
    • Integration of Pros and Cons and Stages of Change Across 12 Health Behaviors
    • Strong and Weak Principles of Progress
    • Processes of Change Across Behaviors
    • Integration of Relationships Between Stages and Processes of Change
  • Applications of the Transtheoretical Model: Smoking Cessation Interventions as Prototypes for Stagematched Programs
    • Recruitment
    • Retention
    • Progress
    • Process
    • Outcomes
    • Enhancing Interactive Interventions
    • Counselor Enhancements
    • Interactive vs. Noninteractive Interventions
    • Proactive vs. Reactive Results
Contact Person/Organization: 

James O. Prochaska, and Wayne F. Velicer, Cancer Prevention Research Center

Type of Tool:

Publication Date: 

Trans-Theoretical Model of Behaviour Change